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S., FELLOW OK THE LINNEAN, CHEMICAL, AND MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETIES OF LONDON ; MEMBER AND LATE EXAMINER OF THE PHARMACEUTICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN ; MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL LEOPOLDINE-CAROLINE ACADEMY ; CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF THE fi OClfrrfe DE PHARMACIE OF PARIS, BRUSSELS, ETC. Nor was I dis- appointed, for among the contributions from Finland, I discovered a suite of specimens illustrating this very subject. To give to these softer candles a hard coating and to prevent their guttering, they are dipped into melted insect- wax often coloured red with alkanet root, — sometimes green with verdigris. Lockhart tells me that the edges of books and the edges of the soles of shoes are rubbed with the wax in order to give them a bright face ; and that it is also rubbed on the brush with which red earthenware is polished.^ ^ Journal of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India, vol. externally and internally for a variety of ailments. decoction, which is regarded by them as of peculiar ef Scacy in diseases of the respiratory organs. 8-9 mili " Patria — Persia, prope Kirrind, ubi Ec Tiinopsidis speciem frequentat, cujus plantse caules ab hoc insecto puncti materiam quamdam saccharinam sudant." W. Jackson states, of the Otto made at Ghazeepore, that it melts at 84°.'' Yet the Otto of the London market, as all druggists know, is never found with so high a fusing-point, and, in fact, there is but Fusing point. The balsam, which is called Balsamo negro, is brought for sale to Sonsonate, previously to shipment at Acajutla. K., the tree which affords this substance, is very imperfectly known. In the following list I have thought it best to group the sub- stances described under the simple headings of Calcareous, Mag- nesian, Arsenical, &c., instead of attempting any more scientific arrangement.

Lamb., being in fact the only tree the resin of which is collected in that country as an industrial product.^ Knowing these facts and having failed to gather any precise information from pharmacological writers as to the districts where the resin of the Spruce Fir is an object of industry, it was with some interest that I examined the various collections of forest-products in the French Exhibition. The wax is colourless and inodorous or nearly so, tasteless, brittle and readily pulverizable at the temperature of 60° Fahr. — In China, candles are made of the insect-wax per se, but more commonly of a mixture of it with some softer fatty substance. Lock- hart has ably assisted my investigation respecting the substance under notice. As a medicine, the insect- wax is used by the Chinese both Medical uses. 163 The saccharine principle, which has been especially examined isss. Berthelot, and named by him Trehalose, is a body analo- m. gous to cane-sugar, but possessing distinctive properties, which separate it from that and all other varieties of sugar. Bourlier states that Trihala, which is abundant in the Trihala shops of the Jew drug-dealers of Constantinople, is freq^uently constauti" used by the Arab and Turkish physicians in the form of a nople. Eoyle.^ Brande states^ that it melts at 84° ; Eedwood, that it fuses between 84° and 86°.* Martiny gives 86° as its fusing point.5 Chevallier, Eichard, and Guillemin say that it is concrete below 84° to Se".** Dr. The seeds should be transmitted by post, as their vitality is not long retained. Although most of their mineral drugs are used in the crude state, there are a few, such as the mercurials, which are the results of chemical operations that are evidently conducted with considerable skill.

'V.' [The Right of Traiislation and Re/prodwlioa is Reserved. Ordinary Burgundy Pitch is White Eesin which has been gently melted for a short time without the addition of water, so that it is in fact freed from a part of its water, but has not yet acquired the brown colour of colophony. Yet how difficult it would be to point to a specimen of Sarsaparilla as indubi- tably the root of one particular species of Smilax, or to find in our museums a specimen of myrrh or olibanum, or gam- boge, with indisputable data as to its botanical origin and place of production. 1G5 These observations have been suggested by the difficulty ib59. Tlie attention of Englishmen residing in the countries indi- cated is especially requested to this by no means unimportant question. — The drug known under this designation is produced, not in Peru, but in Central America, in a district BALSAM OF PEEU— BALSAM OF TOLU. The catalogue includes the names of 500 substances. Hoffmann and Schultes,^ in which the Latin names of about 600 species are enumerated, together with their equivalents in Japanese and Chinese, the Chinese characters being given.

3 SCIENCE PAPERS 43 ADDRESSES AND MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS ... An inferior kind, called White Pitch, is obtained from the resin that is first pro- duced in the manufacture of tar, and has a brownish-yellow colour. Fix Bur- gundica, is the similarly prepared resin of Picea excelsa and Pinus Pinaster, which is brought into commerce in the form of dull, dirty-yellow brittle masses of a glassy fracture, softening in the hand. Nor is the student of Materia Medica much less in need of authentic or type specimens as standards of comparison. For this determination two or three pounds of each sort of bark are requisite ; and for a perfectly fair experiment they ought to be collected from the same individual tree. The name of each drug, so far as it could be determined, is given in Latin without note or comment. Nor should I omit to mention an Index of Plants of Japan and China, published in 1852 by MM.

BRoo KLYi T, De cerabe r 20th, ia94 , Librarian of Cornell University, Ithaca, N. The Paris Exhibition shows that true Burgundy Pitch is also J. On examining eight samples of it, I find that in my notes I have described it as du U tawny, bright tawny yellow, bright yellow, brilliant orange yellow, or bright orange brown. Podi, the latter word meaning the 'pollen of a flower, or dust in general. " After three drachms of the powder have been administered Dr. th^^ worm is usually expelled in the third or fourth stool. " The natives have a prejudice against the use of water as a beverage, asserting that it does not quench thirst or afford the strength and support the coffee-leaf does. Thus provided, gather your specimens, if the plant be small, root and stem ; if large, take off portions of the branches, a foot or rather more in length, always selecting those which are slender and in flower, or in a more or less advanced state of fruit.

Thomas Hanbury,the survivin:"^ brother of the deceased Daniel Kanbury of London, England, has sent to the undersigned fifty copies of the voluine of "Science Papers , chiefly Pharmacological and Botanical, b: Daniel Hanbury P. If the volume be not already in your library, and if it would be useful and accept- able, the undersigned would be glad to send you a copy free of expense on receiving your acceptance and proper address. Baron Linder is likewise an exhibitor of the crude resin of Pinus sylvestris, of the same in a purified state, of Oil of Turpentine, Iceland Moss, and a few other productions of Finland. This artificial Burgundy Pitch is of most variable appearance. In the Tamil language the substance in question is termed Kapilapodi, a name compounded of the Sanskrit Ka-pila and the Tamil (Sunri Q. Although long aware of its value as an ' This employment of coffee-leaves was not previously unnoticed. Gardner's from the Free Press that a patent had been taken out by Dr. The fact of its being the only beverage of a whole population, and of its having from its nutritive qualities become an important necessary of life, will be a sufficient guarantee of its safety as an article of diet, and of its freedom from deleterious effects. , For pressure nothing is better than a heavy weight on the topmost board, or, while travelling, three leathern straps and buckles, two to bind the boards transversely, and one longitudinally. - 3rd Division, Cui.inary Herbs, § L -4th Division, Fruits .

AUetis The first of these substances, viz., Abietis resina, is rare in English commerce, and it was not until during a recent visit to Switzerland that I had an opportunity of obtaining an authentic specimen. 47 sometimes quite transparent and liquid, but is more commonly isso. Jack- son's interesting account is given at length. At Eski-Zaghra, in the valley of the Tunja, to the south-east of Kizanlik, the rose is also cultivated on a large scale, and at Carl ova ;^ also on the southern side of the Balkans, and about 100 miles from Adrianople much Otto is said to be produced. years, since the repeal of a law in 1840 or 1841, prohibiting such adulteration under pain of death,^ it is chiefly at Constan- tinople that this fraudulent practice takes place. Galbanum is said to be imported into Eussia in large quantities by way of Astrachan, but that which reaches England comes principally from Bombay. For instance, a lotion was prescribed composed of calomel, lime water, and chloride of zinc. R Potassse chloratis Boracis aa- 3ss Hydrargyri bichloridi gr. Ill-contrived Although hardly coming under this section, and rather '" deserving to be ranged under the head of ill-contrived formi Uce, may be instanced the following : — R Unguenti hydrarg. *- a large supply of medicine at a small outlay; — in others, because medicine in a concentrated form is more convenient for being carried from place to place. It is moist, of a greyish buff colour, speedily becoming dark on the surface by exposure to the air ; when strained it acquires a browner hue, and is very adhesive. The merchants of Cosseir, Yambo, Hodeyda and Massowah draw their supply from it." According to Burton, the value of the import trade of Jeddah with India amounts to about 25 lacs of rupees (£250,000) annually.* Coupling these facts with the testimony of the Turks, that the volatile oil called Idris Yaghi is imported from Mecca, and still more with M. Wilson informs me, is the most correct, the word being Marathi, and written ^%. These two bodies, the elseoptene and stearoptene, exist, according to my observations, in the Otto of different districts in very different proportions, and to their relative amounts I attribute much of the variation which I find in the specimens examined. The stearoptene was then pressed for some days between paper, and after exposure to the air and drying over oil of vitriol, was weighed.^ The fusing-point was determined in each case by the same ther- mometer placed by the side of the bottle, and the observations were confirmed by repeated trials. Herman, from whom I received it, have an establishment. The results I have tabulated as under : — Table showing the Eesults of a comparative Examination OF TWELVE SAMPLES OF Ot TO OF EOSE. The traveller should embrace the- opportunity, when it occurs, of seeing the bark collected, and of obtaining authentic specimens of it, and of GALANGAL— KLEMI— SARSAPARILLA— RHATANY. This drug is the produce of Ulaphrium elemiferum, Eoyle, a tree occurring near Oaxaca, of which specimens are requested in order that it may be further examined and described. — The species of Smilax, the roots of which constitute the various sorts of sarsaparilla found in commerce, are veiy imperfectly known. Incomparably more important and useful than Cleyer's Speci- men is a little work published at St. several varieties, as Pd-seaou, Wang-seaou, Ma-ya-seaou, &c. — An excellent sample of refined borax ; probably imported in a crude state into China from Thibet, where, as is well known, it occurs in certain lakes. Burgundy pitch, apparently genuine, is imported from Hamburg in tubs called stands, each containing about one hundred pounds, but it is usually in so impure a state as to require straining, sometimes a rather difficult process in- volving considerable loss. Ebe-gumeji) which is used to denote both the marsh- mallow and one of the common garden geraniums, so it is possible that the Arabic ii«,i.^ idris may have the same double signification : — though the application of any term signifying geranium to the essential oil in question, is, as I shall show, only correct in so far as that there is a similarity of odour. Now, although there are several other ports in the Arabian Import trade Gulf, it is Jeddah, the port of Mecca, that stands foremost in "f Jeddah. To quote a competent authority:^ "From its position, it is the entrepdt of all goods coming from India and Egypt. The stearoptene I find to be, ^'"■^ when pure, a colourless crystallizable substance, devoid of odour and taste, fusing at 95° ¥., very slightly soluble in alcohol of sp. It dissolves readily in ether, chloroform, or olive oil, but not in solution of potash or ammonia. '838), throwing the precipitated stearoptene upon a filter and thoroughly washing it with fresh alcohol ; the same amount of alcohol being employed in each case. An inferior kind of Cassia Buds, known as Lovengoopoo, is found at Madras. Aromatic Barks of other Laurinem, as Ciditlawang ^ Massoy, Sintoc, are objects of commerce in the Indian Archipelago, and are but imperfectly known in Europe. It occurs in commerce in scraped pieces, which are semi-cylindrical, yellowish, semi-opaque, and having the usual strong and fragrant odour of Elemi. Occasionally the author is able to add the European name. It is said to be found on the Thibetan frontiers of China.^ v M ^ Pdng-sha ; Borax ; Biborate of Soda. Mc Cartee says that what is sold at Ningpo is exceedingly impure, a better article is sold under the name yt| -Vj yueh-shih — moonstone. The crude resin as exuded from the trunk of the tree and described in the following words : " Barras ou gomme concrete, adherente aux sapins {Finns Abies). The resin purified by melting in contact with the vapour of water, and straining. Theodor Milliner of Hinter Briihl, Post Modling near Vienna, who shows Fichtenharz, or crude resin of the Spruce Pir and Fichtenpech, which is the same in a purified condition. A., in the Qua/rterly Journal of the Chemical Society, vol. ) by those about to speak in public.^ NOTICE OF A SPECIMEN OF INSECT -WAX FROM lase. jg fj.yjl; Qf t;]jg {_j,gg jg tncoccous and of the size of a pea, covered Fniit of on the outer surface with minute, sessile, roundish, semi-trans- parent glands of a bright red colour. Jekel has applied the "^^'^^^^^l^^^^eut-' Zarinus mellificus, and of which he has drawn up the following fic Ms. lata subcariniformi ; thorace subconico antice tubulato, supra confertim sat rude punctato, lateribus subrugoso ; elytris striato- punctatis, interstitiis latis, planis, trans versim subtilissime rugulosis, cum abdomine tenuissime alutaceis, punctis majoribus remotioribus impressis ; pectore, lateribus, pedibusque rugoso- punctatis, femoribus infra fortiter oblique costato-rugosis ; tibiis intus, anticis fortius crenulatis. These discrepant facts have long engaged my attention, and believing that the general subject of Otto of Eose merits the notice of pharmacists, I have placed on paper the observations which I have collected. Monardes (156.5) states that balsam of Peru is lighter than water, but the balsam of modern times is heavier. Is not balsam prepared at Chongon, near G-uayaquil ? We have received the seeds of a Myrospermum from that country. It is also found at the mouth of the river Sinu, near El Zapote, and here and there on the banks of the Eio Magdalena, in the environs of Garapatas and Mompox. Baron Linder, of Svarta, near Helsingfors, is the exhibitor of the resin of the Spruce Fir in two forms, namely : — Baron 1. Du Halde says " it makes flesh grow, stops bleeding, eases pain, restores strength, braces the nerves, and joins broken bones together."^ Grosier, besides mentioning its employment as an application to wounds, states that it is sometimes swallowed to the extent of an ounce at a time as a stimulant (! The second insect-product to which I would draw attention, H- Product, is a saccharine substance resembling dark honey. Loftus, who obtained it near Kirrind, 13th July, 1851, and whose specimen is in the British Museum, states that it is exuded from a species of thistle when pierced by a Ehynchophorous insect ; but he fails to inform us for what purposes it is used by the inhabitants. Loftus having also presented the Museum with excellent specimens both of the plant and insect, I am able to state that the former is Echinops persicus, Fisch., and the latter a new Ec Unops pev- species of Larinus, to which M. Breviter ovatus, convexus, niger, nitidus ; infra subt Uiter, lateribus thoracis margineque elytrorum intus medio versus angulariter ampliata, apicem occupante griseo-cinerascenti tomentosis; rostro leviter punctato, basi utrinque bicanaliculato cum elevatione media . a portion of that which arrives, of which one could say that it is solid above 60° F. Although the plant above mentioned is undoubtedly that which affords the balsam of Peru of commerce, yet there is reason to think that a balsam of similar character was formerly extracted from other species. It grows in New Granada, in the neighbourhood of Turbaco, and especially in the high savannas near Tolu, Corozol, and the town of Tacasuan. On Garments and Domestic Utensils [appertaining to medicine.) 10» 22 43 71 87 164 Odoriferous Plants 165—207 Plants which grow in damp places 208 — 333 Poisonous Plants 334— 378 Creeping and Climbing Plants 379 — 452 Aquatic Plants 453— 471 Rock Plants 472— 490 Mosses and Lichens 491 — 602 Miscellaneous Plants, and Plants having names, but not yet used in Medicine. 626— 635 Millet, Maize, &c 636— 644 Leguminous Plants 646 — 652 Alimentary Preparations [of a ve- fetable nature, and used in me- icine, as boiled rice, yeast, soy, vinegar, wine, &c ] Plants having a strong odour and pungent taste fas garlic, mna- tard, ginger, &c,] 553- Soft and Smooth plants [potherbs, as lettuce, chicory, mallow, &c.] 677— Plants producing fruit upon the gi'ound [as the gourd tribe] 607 — 615 Aquatic Vegetables [as edible sea- weeds] 616- 620 Fungi 62.1— 626 Cultivated Fruits 627— 636 Hi U Fruits 636— 664 Foreign Fruits 665— 684 Aromatic Fruits 685— 696 Fruits which grow on the ground, and have no Icemels [as melons] 697 — 702 Aquatic Fruits 703— 707 Aromatic Trees 708— 732 Stately Trees 733— 777 Bushy Trees 778— 821 Parasitic Plants 822— 826 Flexible Plants and Trees [as osier, bamboo, &o.

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Neither is true Burgundy Pitch produced in France, as its name would seem to indicate, Finns maritima. The broken surface generally exhibits the wax as a beautifully sparkling, highly crystalline substance somewhat resembling spermaceti but much harder; some cakes are in- ternally much less crystalline and sparkling than others. ' I will here acknowledge the kindness with which my friend Mr. Hugh Barclay, of Regent Street, for aiding my inquiries and for a fine specimen of the wax ; and to Sir W. When combined with stearine it has been found serviceable in what is technically called hreaking the grain (i.e., diminishing the crystalline texture) of the stearine pre- viously to its being formed into candles. Pereira states^ that at temperatures below 80° F., Attar of Eoses is a crystalline solid ; and the same assertion is made by Dr. Of this tree, which is the Myrospermum Pereirce of Eoyle, good flowering specimens are much desired, as are also fresh seeds, in order that the plant may be raised in our hot-houses. Numerous substances are employed which are devoid of all active medicinal properties, while others of great power are so administered that the dose must be extremely un- certain. — Kaempfer states that it is found abundantly in Japan.

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